Yes, foam plugs will currently have the best isolation as measured in decibels reduction. But, adding ear muffs or earmuffs with noise cancellation, or earmuffs with NC + Bluetooth, so you can listen to something distracting OR be on a local conference circuit so you can coordinate with a group or the Range Master & Team… or earmuffs with NC + gating environmental microphone/amplifiers to hear local range conversation… are all going to be better than “JUST” the plugs…
Plugs + muffs are just better because the benefit is additive.
Now, there is science starting to show up that the concussive effects on our hearing physiology may be impacted by bone and liquid conduction. Obviously this will be relative to amplitude, impulse, duration, and inverse square propagation involved with distances that are in an unrestricted environment. Adding focusing lenses/mufflers become special case but should be accounted for.
So… just like the sun and our skin… protect it; it doesn’t necessarily come back! And tinnitus sucks. (Not saying everyone gets to enjoy that special goodness. Or, that it is permanent and continuous in all cases.)